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Retail location and urban resilience: towards a new framework for retail policy

A very useful addition to any planner's library. He has worked on several major development schemes across the capital, usually in a client or project delivery role. Throughout his career he has worked at the leading edge of best practice, innovating approaches and techniques for delivering new built development.

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He is also a recognised expert on urban design and housing design; he was responsible for bringing into effect the London Housing Design Standards, has sat on various design review panels and co-authored a publication championing the new London vernacular for housing. Challenging existing assumptions about how our towns and cities are structured and formed, Julian Hart provides an engaging and thought-provoking alternative theory of urban design.

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This is not urban design in the sense of the practice of design; rather it is a theory of the form of the town at all scales - why towns and cities happen to be structured the way they are as a result of the social, political, legal and especially economic forces that create them. The shape of the city at every scale, from the internal configuration of dwellings all the way up to the superstructure of the whole city, can be seen to arise from the interplay between three antagonistic socio-economic tensions. In going about our daily business and in championing particular political objectives, we collectively fashion our cities in terms of their structure and form.

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This leads to various new ways of understanding how and why our cities so happen to be configured the way they are. The book makes a step change from any other comparable studies by understanding our towns and cities in terms of function in form. This helps us to appreciate why every town is a recognisable town, wherever it is.

Different urban environments in different parts of the world, past and present, can come to be seen according to their similarities instead of their differences. Furthermore, by appreciating how the economic influences of everyday life structure our towns and cities, we can in turn begin to understand better how the shape of towns and cities affects the quality of life of inhabitants and the cohesiveness of communities.

In covering all scales from inside the home to macrostructure of the city, the book encapsulates urban design through to town planning and does not seek to distinguish between the various design disciplines. Read more Read less. They should also encourage sources of repayment for such investments beyond just user fees.

Urban history

Implications for entrepreneurs: Focus on public-private partnerships PPP. There are opportunities to combine creative financing with thoughtful use of new sensor and big-data technologies to create projects that contribute to building sustainable cities. The urban areas have few existing physical or social structures to dismantle as they grow, hence fewer entrenched obstacles to new offerings.

Finally, in these cities there is an important chance to build it right the first time, notably with respect to the roads, bridges, water, and power that will determine both economic competitiveness and quality of life for decades.

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The downside? If this chance is missed, new urban agglomerations will be characterized by informal sprawl and new settlements will be hard to reach after the fact with power, roads, and sanitation. Next, they can encourage commercial platforms for entrepreneurs to create services including data connectivity, banking, and insurance.

Leaders should focus on hard infrastructure that reduces costs for companies and on the soft infrastructure that positions the city high on the quality-of-life metrics that appeal to creative-economy workers. These factors include easy transit, clean air and water, green space, and support for arts and recreation.

For example, Cisco has deployed telepresence technologies high-quality, real-time video interaction to developments including New Songdo City in Korea and Lavasa in India to improve both the delivery of civic services and to attract employers. Global urban innovators will do well to consider the different situations and approaches across the four segments and to match goals and financing appropriately.